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Рекомендации по подготовке англоязычных аннотаций

Вводные замечания

В рамках научного дискурса процессы восприятия и создания текста возможно оптимизировать, если четко знать характеристики того или иного типа текста.

Под типом текста подразумевается конвенциональный образец организации для текстов с аналогичными структурными и функциональными признаками. Иными словами, "тип текста" - это канонизированная модель с определенными набором инвариантных признаков. Знание стереотипных компонентов того или иного типа научного текста не только регулирует и направляет поиск информации, но и значительно облегчает процесс порождения собственного текста.

Рассмотрим инвариантные и повторяющиеся характеристики одного из наиболее востребованных в последнее время в научном дискурсе типов текста – аннотации (abstract), которые реализуются на следующих уровнях:

В практике научного дискурса последних лет наиболее общепринятыми для аннотации являются 3 модели, образцы которых приведенные ниже:

Примеры аннотаций по модели 1:

Human capital investment strategies in Europe. The paper analyses alternative investment policies and their consequences for the evolution of human capital in Europe based on a model of age dependent skill formation where the life span depends on investments during childhood. What makes the approach special is the analysis of the returns to education of alternative educational policies targeted at certain ages, countries, or productivity levels for two counterfactual policy regimes, one regime assuming the actual state of diversity and the other a unified Europe. Our results indicate that investments need to be directed more generally to people of younger ages in Europe. If equality is important enough additional investment should specifically be directed to disadvantaged individuals during childhood. Furthermore, high levels of life cycle income inequality and a high skill level increase the optimal amount of investments during younger adulthood. In a unified Europe, the effectiveness of policies to reduce inequality would be higher.
Globalization, brain drain and development. This paper reviews four decades of economics research on the brain drain, with a focus on recent contributions and on development issues. We first assess the magnitude, intensity and determinants of the brain drain, showing that brain drain (or high-skill) migration is becoming the dominant pattern of international migration and a major aspect of globalization. We then use a stylized growth model to analyze the various channels through which a brain drain affects the sending countries and review the evidence on these channels. The recent empirical literature shows that high-skill emigration need not deplete a country's human capital stock and can generate positive network externalities. Three case studies are also considered: the African medical brain drain, the recent exodus of European scientists to the United States, and the role of the Indian diaspora in the development of India's IT sector. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of the analysis for education, immigration, and international taxation policies in a global context.
Building the Born Global Firm: Developing Entrepreneurial Capabilities for International New Venture Success. This article considers the capabilities entrepreneurs require to create successful new international ventures. An in-depth case study of a successful serial entrepreneur and the two international new ventures he founded leads the authors to propose three entrepreneurial capabilities that are particularly important for successful international new venture creation – international opportunity identification, institutional bridging, and a capacity and preference for cross-cultural collaboration. The article also considers how budding international entrepreneurs can develop such capabilities in order to improve their chances of international new venture success, and concludes with a discussion of the implications of the authors' findings for entrepreneurship research and practice.


Примеры аннотаций по модели 2:

Does culture still matter? The effects of individualism on national innovation rates. Does a society's culture affect its rate of inventive activity? This article analyzes several independent datasets of culture and innovation from 62 countries spanning more than two decades. It finds that most measures of individualism have a strong, significant, and positive effect on innovation, even when controlling for major policy variables. However, the data also suggest that a certain type of collectivism (i.e. patriotism and nationalism) can also foster innovation at the national level, while other types of collectivism (i.e. familism and localism) not only harm innovation rates, but may hurt progress in science worse than technology.
Putting Consumers to Work. `Co-creation` and new marketing govern-mentality. Co-creation is a new paradigm that has captured the imagination of marketing and management professionals and scholars. Drawing on Foucault's notion of government and neo-Marxist theories of labor and value, we critically interrogate the cultural, social, and economic politics of this new management technique. We suggest that co-creation represents a political form of power aimed at generating particular forms of consumer life at once free and controllable, creative and docile. We argue that the discourse of value co-creation stands for a notion of modern corporate power that is no longer aimed at disciplining consumers and shaping actions according to a given norm, but at working with and through the freedom of the consumer. In short, administering consumption in ways that allow for the continuous emergence and exploitation of creative and valuable forms of consumer labor is the true meaning of the concept of co-creation.
Wikinomics and its discontents: a critical analysis of Web 2.0 business manifestos. 'Collaborative culture', 'mass creativity' and 'co-creation' appear to be contagious buzzwords that are rapidly infecting economic and cultural discourse on Web 2.0. Allegedly, peer production models will replace opaque, top-down business models, yielding to transparent, democratic structures where power is in the shared hands of responsible companies and skilled, qualified users. Manifestos such as Wikinomics (Tapscott and Williams, 2006) and 'We-Think' (Leadbeater, 2007) argue collective culture to be the basis for digital commerce. This article analyzes the assumptions behind this Web 2.0 newspeak and unravels how business gurus try to argue the universal benefits of a democratized and collectivist digital space. They implicitly endorse a notion of public collectivism that functions entirely inside commodity culture. The logic of Wikinomics and 'We-Think' urgently begs for deconstruction, especially since it is increasingly steering mainstream cultural theory on digital culture.
Developing science: Scientific performance and brain drains in the developing world. Establishing a strong scientific community is important as countries develop and requires both producing and retaining of important scientists. We show that developing countries produce a sizeable number of important scientists, but that they experience a tremendous brain drain. Education levels, population, and per capita GDP are positively related to the number of important scientists born in and staying in a country. Our analysis indicates that democracy and urbanization are associated with the production of more important scientists although democracy is associated with more out-migration.
Tax risk management and the multinational enterprise. The financial scandals in the United States and other countries ushered in financial reporting and corporate governance reforms that extend beyond the U.S. Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX). These initiatives have increased the international financial community's awareness of the importance of risk management and internal controls. Tax risk management and related internal controls have been accorded less focus than risk management generally. The purpose of this research is to describe the current state of tax risk management of multinational enterprises (MNEs) by reporting survey responses from chief financial officers (CFOs) of U.S. and non-U.S. MNEs. The research shows that significant progress has been made by large MNEs in developing and implementing both general and tax risk management policies. The results provide guidance in identifying the loci and impact of organizational tax risk and indicate that respondents do not perceive alarming degrees of tax risk in their organizations. The study reveals a remarkable degree of similarity in U.S. and foreign firm responses and demonstrates, unexpectedly, that existing reporting structures enable CFOs to shift a significant degree of tax risk management to heads of tax.


Примеры аннотаций по модели 3:

Alliance type, alliance experience and alliance management capability in high-technology ventures.  We investigate a high-technology venture's alliance management capability. We develop a model that links differential demands of alliance type and the benefits of alliance experience to an observable outcome from a firm's alliance management capability. We test our model on a sample of 2226 R&D alliances entered into by 325 global biotechnology firms. We find that alliance type and alliance experience moderate the relationship between a high-technology venture's R&D alliances and its new product development. These results provide empirical evidence for the existence of an alliance management capability and its heterogeneous distribution across firms.
A Review of Tax Research.  In this paper, we present a review of tax research. We survey four main areas of the literature: 1) the informational role of income tax expense reported for financial accounting, 2) corporate tax avoidance, 3) corporate decision-making including investment, capital structure, and organizational form, and 4) taxes and asset pricing. We summarize the research areas and questions examined to date and what we have learned or not learned from the work completed thus far. In addition, we provide our opinion as to the interesting and important issues for future research.
Cursed Resources? Political Conditions and Oil Market Outcomes.  We analyze how a country's political institutions affect oil production within its borders. We find a pronounced negative relationship between political openness and volatility in oil production, with democratic regimes exhibiting less volatility than more autocratic regimes. This relationship holds across a number of robustness checks including using different measures of political conditions, instrumenting for political conditions and using several measures of production volatility. Political openness also affects other oil market outcomes, including total production as a share of reserves. Our findings have implications both for interpreting the role of institutions in explaining differences in macroeconomic development and for understanding world oil markets.


Несколько полезных рекомендаций, позволяющих приблизить Вашу аннотацию к международным стандартам:

  1. Аннотация – это обобщение информации, а не ее подробное изложение, что делает данный жанр письменного дискурса, пожалуй, самым сложным. Это также верно и в отношении статистических данных; не следует приводить их во всем объеме. Обобщайте!
  2. Информация непосредственно об исследовании представляется в простом настоящем времени.
  3. В качестве основной модели построения предложения используйте в аннотации конструкцию S+V+O (подлежащее + сказуемое + дополнение с расширенным толкованием). Например: The article examines the model of… which allows to show… . The paper provides the examination of… drawing on the data… . The author studies the empirical data received from the sample of … .
  4. Старайтесь максимально избегать конструкций с пассивным залогом, таких как: model of … is presented, results of … are discussed, effect of … is shown.
  5. Ссылки на лежащие в основе Вашего исследования работы в аннотации практически исключаются.
  6. Избегайте чрезмерного использования предлога of в функции родительного падежа.